A Free Body Diagram is a pictorial representation often used by physicists and engineers to analyze the forces acting on a free body. A free body diagram shows all contact and non-contact forces acting on the body. Drawing such a diagram can aid in solving for the unknown forces or the equations of motion of the body. Creating a free body diagram can make it easier to understand the forces, and moments, in relation to one another and suggest the proper concepts to apply in order to find the solution to a problem. The diagrams are also used as a conceptual device to help identify the internal forces, (for example shear forces and bending moments in beams), which are developed within structures
A free body diagram consists primarily of a sketch of the body in question and arrows representing the forces applied to it. The selection of the body to sketch may be the first important decision in the problem solving process. For example, to find the forces on the pivot joint of a simple pair of pliers, it is helpful to draw a free body diagram of just one of the two pieces, not the entire system, replacing the second half with the forces it would apply to the first half.
The sketch of the free body need include only as much detail as necessary. Often a simple outline is sufficient. Depending on the analysis to be performed and the model being employed, just a single point may be the most appropriate.
All external contacts, constraints, and body forces are indicated by vector arrows labeled with appropriate descriptions. The arrows show the direction and magnitude of the various forces. To the extent possible or practical, the arrows should indicate the point of application of the force they represent.
Only the forces acting on the object are included. These may include forces such as friction, gravity, normal force, drag, or simply contact force due to pushing. When in a non-inertial reference frame, fictitious forces, such as Centrifugal force may be appropriate.
A coordinate system is usually included, according to convenience. This may make defining the vectors simpler when writing the equations of motion. The x direction might be chosen to point down the ramp in an inclined plane problem, for example. In that case the friction force only has an x component, and the normal force only has a y component. The force of gravity will still have components in both the x and y direction: mgsin(theta) in the x and mgcos(theta) in the y, where theta is the angle between the ramp and the horizontal.
All external contacts and constraints are left out and replaced with force arrows as described above.
Forces which the free body applies to other objects are not included. For example, if a ball rests on a table, the ball applies a force to the table, and the table applies an equal and opposite force to the ball. The FBD of the ball only includes the force that the table causes on the ball.
Internal forces, forces between varies parts that make up the system that is being treated as a single body, are omitted. For example, if an entire truss is being analyzed to find the reaction forces at the supports, the forces between the individual truss members are not included.
Any velocity or acceleration is left out. These may be indicated instead on a companion diagram, called “Kinetic diagrams”, “Inertial response diagrams”, or the equivalent, depending on the author.