Category Archives: LECTURE NOTES

Topic Wise Video Lecture Notes on Biomedical Photonics

Aim of Course
The course should provide knowledge about the physical properties of light and its impact and interaction with biological tissue.
Course Content
Optical properties of biological tissue. Light transport in tissue. Therapeutic window. Light transport models. Measurement of tissue optical properties. Optical coherence tomography, multi-photon excitation, flourescens, etc.

To download all the Video Lecture Notes, Topic wise click on the computer icon on Left hand side.


1 I Introduction
Course Content
Why Use Optical Methods?
Why Should You Learn Biomedical Optics?
Fundamentals of Optics
Overview of Spectroscopy
Classical Description of Light
Light-Tissue Interaction

Video Lecture Notes on Biomechanical Modelling of Bone & Cartillage

Learning Outcomes

1) To give insight into articular cartilage and bone biomechanics, structure and composition, and present imaging and mechanical testing techniques to characterize these properties.
2) To present basic principles of biomechanical modeling of tissues, especially articular cartilage and bone, and show state-of-the-art techniques and computational models of articular cartilage and bone.

Download the Video Lecture Notes By Clicking the Computer image on left hand side of the topic.

Engineering aspects in bone research
  1 Timo Jämsä: Engineering aspects in bone research
  2 Timo Jämsä: Engineering aspects in bone research

Video Lecture Notes on Bioelectromagnetism

About The Materials

The course provides a general view of bioelectromagnetism and describes it as an independent discipline. It begins with an historical account of the many innovations and innovators on whose work the field rests. This is accompanied by a discussion of both the theories and experiments which were contributed to the development of the field. The physiological origin of bioelectric and biomagnetic signal is discussed in detail. The sensitivity in a given measurement situation, the energy distribution in stimulation with the same electrodes, and the measurement of impedance are related and described by the electrode lead field. It is shown that, based on the reciprocity theorem, these are identical and further, that these procedures apply equally well for biomagnetic considerations. The difference between corresponding bioelectric and biomagnetic methods is discussed. It is also shown, that all subfields of bioelectromagnetism obey the same basic laws and they are closely tied together through the principle of reciprocity. Thus the book course helps to understand the properties of existing bioelectric and biomagnetic measurements and stimulation methods and to design new systems.

Static Characteristics of Biomedical Instruments

Representation of high accuracy and low precision.

Image via Wikipedia

To enable purchasers to compare commercially available instruments and evaluate new instrument designs, quantitative criteria for the performance of instruments are needed. These criteria must clearly specify how well an instrument measures the desired input and how much the output depends on interfering and modifying inputs. Characteristics of instrument performance are usually subdivided into two classes on the basis of the frequency of the input signals.
Static characteristics describe the performance of instruments for dc or very low frequency inputs. The properties of the output for a wide range of constant inputs demonstrate the quality of the measurement, including nonlinear and statistical effects. Some sensors and instruments, such as piezoelectric devices, respond only to time-varying inputs and have no static characteristics.

Important Physiological Signals in the body


The body produces various physiological signals. The accessibility to these signals is important because

(1) they can be internal (blood pressure)
(2) they may emanate from the body (infrared radiation)
(3) they may be derived from a tissue sample (blood or tissue biopsy)
All physiological signals can be grouped into the following categories –

(2) pressure
(3) flow
(4)dimensions( for example : imaging)
(5)displacement (such as velocity, force, andacceleration)
(6) impedence
(7) temperature
(8) chemical concentration and composition.

Short Note on Biotelemetry System

Some times, it become essential to monitor physiological events from a distant place.
Some of such situations are:
(a) Monitoring of astronauts during flight.
(b) Monitoring of patients in ambulance while transit to hospital.
(c) Monitoring of patients while obtaining their exercise electrocardiogram.
(d) Monitoring of patients who are permitted to stay away from the hospital.
(e) Monitoring of animals in their natural habitat.
(f) Transmission of ECG or other medical information through telephone links
(g) Isolating the patients from electricity operated measuring equipment such as ECG equipment inorder to prevent any accidental shock to them.