The Origin of Biopotentials
(Review of physiological concepts)
• Bioelectric phenomenon is of immense importance to
biomedical engineers because these potentials are routinely
recorded in modern clinical practice.
• ECG (Electrocardiogram), EMG (Electromyogram), EEG
(Electroencephalogram), ENG (Electroneurogram), EOG
(Electro-oculogram), ERG (Electroretinogram), etc. are some
examples of biopotentials.
• As engineers, we should have a good physical insight into the
nature of electromagnetic fields generated by bioelectric
sources. Therefore we could contribute to quantitative solution
of biological problems.
To understand the origin of biopotentials we need to focus on:
• Bioelectric phenomena at the cellular level
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Bionics (also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.Some dictionaries, however, explain the word as being formed from “biology” + “electronics”.
The transfer of technology between lifeforms and synthetic constructs is desirable because evolutionary pressure typically forces natural systems to become highly optimized and efficient. A classical example is the development of dirt- and water-repellent paint (coating) from the observation that the surface of the lotus flower plant is practically unsticky for anything (the lotus effect). Examples of bionics in engineering include the hulls of boats imitating the thick skin of dolphins; sonar, radar, and medical ultrasound imaging imitating the echolocation of bats.