Tag Archives: physiology

PhD position in Biomedical Research in Italy

Sant’Anna School for Advanced Studies announced PhD Programme for research in Innovative Strategies in Biomedical Research at Italy -2011/2012

Study Subject(s): Innovative Strategies in Biomedical Research, System Physiology , Experimental and Clinical , Physiological Genomics and Molecular Medicine
Course Level: PhD
Scholarship Provider: Sant’Anna School for Advanced Studies
Scholarship can be taken at: Italy
– possession of a Master of Science (MSc.) Degree (or equivalent) or a Degree to be awarded within December 22, 2011
– to be under 35 years of age on October 25, 2011.

Scholarship Open for International Students: Yes

Important Physiological Signals in the body


The body produces various physiological signals. The accessibility to these signals is important because

(1) they can be internal (blood pressure)
(2) they may emanate from the body (infrared radiation)
(3) they may be derived from a tissue sample (blood or tissue biopsy)
All physiological signals can be grouped into the following categories –

(2) pressure
(3) flow
(4)dimensions( for example : imaging)
(5)displacement (such as velocity, force, andacceleration)
(6) impedence
(7) temperature
(8) chemical concentration and composition.

Short Note on Biotelemetry System

Some times, it become essential to monitor physiological events from a distant place.
Some of such situations are:
(a) Monitoring of astronauts during flight.
(b) Monitoring of patients in ambulance while transit to hospital.
(c) Monitoring of patients while obtaining their exercise electrocardiogram.
(d) Monitoring of patients who are permitted to stay away from the hospital.
(e) Monitoring of animals in their natural habitat.
(f) Transmission of ECG or other medical information through telephone links
(g) Isolating the patients from electricity operated measuring equipment such as ECG equipment inorder to prevent any accidental shock to them.



Human systems physiology, including:  basic cellular physiology, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and gastro-intestinal physiology.  A quantitative, model-oriented approach to physiological systems is stressed.


Color / Full Page Slides (PDF Format) Printable (6 slides per page, black and white) Slides (PDF Format) Slides in Powerpoint (ppt) Format
1 Lecture 1 Lecture 1 Lecture 1
2 Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Lecture 2
3 Lecture 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 3
4 Lecture 4 Lecture 4 Lecture 4
5 Lecture 5 Lecture 5 Lecture 5


The Origin of Biopotentials
(Review of physiological concepts)

•  Bioelectric phenomenon is  of immense importance to
biomedical engineers because these potentials are routinely
recorded in modern clinical practice.

•  ECG (Electrocardiogram), EMG (Electromyogram), EEG
(Electroencephalogram), ENG (Electroneurogram), EOG
(Electro-oculogram), ERG (Electroretinogram), etc. are some
examples of biopotentials.

•  As engineers, we should have a good physical insight into the
nature of electromagnetic fields generated by bioelectric
sources. Therefore we could contribute to quantitative solution
of biological problems.

To understand the origin of biopotentials we need to focus on:

•  Bioelectric phenomena at the cellular level