The body produces various physiological signals. The accessibility to these signals is important because
(1) they can be internal (blood pressure)
(2) they may emanate from the body (infrared radiation)
(3) they may be derived from a tissue sample (blood or tissue biopsy)
All physiological signals can be grouped into the following categories –
(4)dimensions( for example : imaging)
(5)displacement (such as velocity, force, andacceleration)
(8) chemical concentration and composition.
Some times, it become essential to monitor physiological events from a distant place.
Some of such situations are:
(a) Monitoring of astronauts during flight.
(b) Monitoring of patients in ambulance while transit to hospital.
(c) Monitoring of patients while obtaining their exercise electrocardiogram.
(d) Monitoring of patients who are permitted to stay away from the hospital.
(e) Monitoring of animals in their natural habitat.
(f) Transmission of ECG or other medical information through telephone links
(g) Isolating the patients from electricity operated measuring equipment such as ECG equipment inorder to prevent any accidental shock to them.
The Origin of Biopotentials
(Review of physiological concepts)
• Bioelectric phenomenon is of immense importance to
biomedical engineers because these potentials are routinely
recorded in modern clinical practice.
• ECG (Electrocardiogram), EMG (Electromyogram), EEG
(Electroencephalogram), ENG (Electroneurogram), EOG
(Electro-oculogram), ERG (Electroretinogram), etc. are some
examples of biopotentials.
• As engineers, we should have a good physical insight into the
nature of electromagnetic fields generated by bioelectric
sources. Therefore we could contribute to quantitative solution
of biological problems.
To understand the origin of biopotentials we need to focus on:
• Bioelectric phenomena at the cellular level
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