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“THESE KNOWLEDGE NOTES COULD ALSO BE PRESENTED AS A SEMINAR IN YOUR COLLEGE”
A brain-machine interface is a communication system that does not depend on the brains normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles. It is a new communication link between a functioning human brain and the outside world. These are electronic interfaces with the brain, which has the ability to send and receive signals from the brain. BMI uses brain activity to command, control, actuate and communicate with the world directly through brain integration with peripheral devices and systems. The signals from the brain are taken to the computer via the implants for data entry without any direct brain intervention. BMI transforms mental decisions and/or reactions into control signals by analyzing the bioelectrical brain activity.
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Customized microscopic magnets that might one day be injected into the body could add color to magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI), while also potentially enhancing sensitivity and the amount of information provided by images, researchers
at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and National Institutes of Health
(NIH) report. The new micromagnets also could act as “smart tags” identifying particular cells, tissues, or physiological conditions, for medical research
or diagnostic purposes (www.nature.com
). NIH has already filed for a patent for the micromagnets. The micromagnets are compatible with standard MRI hardware.
NIST and NIH investigators have demonstrated the proof of principle for a new approach to MRI. Unlike the chemical solutions now used as image-enhancing contrast agents
in MRI, the NIST/NIH micro-magnets rely on a precisely tunable feature—their physical shape—to adjust the radio-frequency
(RF) signals used to create images. The RF signals then can be converted into a rainbow of optical colors by a computer. Sets of different magnets designed to appear as different colors could, for example, be coated to attach to different cell types, such as cancerous versus normal. The cells then could be identified by tag color.
“Current MRI technology is primarily black and white. This is like a colored tag for MRI,” says lead author Gary Zabow, who designed and fabricated the microtags at NIST.
Tiny Tracking Tags
The micromagnets also can be thought of as microscopic RF identification (RFID
) tags, similar to those used for identifying and tracking objects from nationwide box shipments to food in the supermarket. The device concept is flexible and could have other applications such as in enabling RFID-based microscopic fluid devices for biotechnology and handheld medical diagnostic toolkits.
The microtags would need extensive further engineering and testing, including clinical
studies, before they could be used in people undergoing MRI exams. The magnets used in the NIST/NIH studies were made of nickel, which is toxic, but was relatively easy to work with for the initial prototypes. But Zabow says they could be made of other magnetic materials
, such as iron, which is considered non-toxic and is already approved for use in certain medical agents. Only very low concentrations of the magnets would be needed in the body to enhance MRI images.
Each micromagnet consists of two round, vertically stacked magnetic discs a few micrometers in diameter, separated by a small open gap in between. Researchers create a customized magnetic field for each tag by making it from particular materials and tweaking the geometry, perhaps by widening the gap between the discs or changing the discs’ thickness or diameter. As water in a sample flows between the discs, protons acting like twirling bar magnets within the water’s hydrogen atoms generate predictable RF signals—the stronger the magnetic field, the faster the twirling—and these signals are used to create images.
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We have seen generally that student at undergraduate level are not able to associate their study skills with paper writing capabilities, So I thought that it would be right to have a tutorial about how to extract a paper from regular study material
It could be an IEEE paper or paper being presented at any other level
what are the basic fundamental skills required for writing a paper
A major goal of this tutorial is the development of effective technical writing skills. To help you become an accomplished writer, you will prepare several research papers based upon the studies completed in lab.
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National AIDS Control Organisation
PG Students enrolled for full-time MD/MPhil/PhD degree program in relevant disciplines from any recognized Indian University/Institute below 35 years.
NACO invites applications from young researchers to provide opportunity and incentive to pursue quality and need based research in HIV/AIDS in bio-medical/clinical, epidemiological, behavioral and social disciplines.NACO Research Fellowship grant will be given to the respective Institution/Department in full for the awardees students. NACO will award up to 20 Fellowships per year for financial assistance. NACO will consider applications received through proper channel only with a certificate on official letter-head duly recommended by the Guide/Supervisor and Head of the Department/Institute where the candidate proposes to work.
Biomedical informatics, as a scientific discipline, has its roots in the early 1970s. It encompasses the fields of bioinformatics, medical imaging, health informatics, and several other disciplines. In recent years, this biological field has experienced explosive growth, due to public access to massive amounts of data generated from the Human Genome Project. A host of other complementary research efforts have also contributed to the knowledge base. This synergistic blend of multiple branches of biology, combined with information technology and knowledge, has enabled researchers and clinicians to utilize an array of information to advance biological research and healthcare.