Video Lecture Notes on Bioelectromagnetism

About The Materials

The course provides a general view of bioelectromagnetism and describes it as an independent discipline. It begins with an historical account of the many innovations and innovators on whose work the field rests. This is accompanied by a discussion of both the theories and experiments which were contributed to the development of the field. The physiological origin of bioelectric and biomagnetic signal is discussed in detail. The sensitivity in a given measurement situation, the energy distribution in stimulation with the same electrodes, and the measurement of impedance are related and described by the electrode lead field. It is shown that, based on the reciprocity theorem, these are identical and further, that these procedures apply equally well for biomagnetic considerations. The difference between corresponding bioelectric and biomagnetic methods is discussed. It is also shown, that all subfields of bioelectromagnetism obey the same basic laws and they are closely tied together through the principle of reciprocity. Thus the book course helps to understand the properties of existing bioelectric and biomagnetic measurements and stimulation methods and to design new systems.

Lecture 1

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  Intro Bioelectromagnetism, Main topics, Textbook, Interdisciplinary sciences
  1.1 – 1.2 Bioelectromagnetism, Subdivisions of bioelectromagnetism
  1.3 Bioelectric phenomena, Generation of bioelectric signals, Importance of bioelectromagnetism, Funny example
  1.4 History of bioelectromagnetism, William Gilbert, Jan Swammerdam, Luigi Galvani, Electrotherapy
  1.4.3 Hans Christian Ørstedt, Hans BergerEEG, Magnetocardiogram, Hermann Helmholtz, Nernst equation
Lecture 2
Part I Anatomical and Physiological Basis of Bioelectromagnetism
  2  Nerve and muscle cell, Cell membrane, Motoneuron
  2.2.3 Synapse, Striated muscle, Bioelectric function, Response of the membrane potential, Conduction of nerve impulse
  3  Subthreshold membrane phenomena, Nernst equation, Electric potential and field, Nernst-Planc equation, Illustration
  3.3  The origin of resting voltage, Electric circuit of membrane, Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation, Reversal voltage, Transmembrane ion flux
Lecture 3
  3  Subthreshold membrane phenomena, Nernst equation, Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation, Transmembrane ion flux
  3.6  Cable equation of the axon, Steady state response, Stimulation with step-current, Strength-duration relation
  4  Active behavior of the membrane, Voltage clamp method, Space clamp, Voltage clamp
  4.2.3  Voltage clamp, Examples, Transmembrane ion flux, Preparation of an axon, Fugu fish
  4.4  Hodgin-Huxley model, Parallel conductance model, Voltage clamp experiments, Model for potassium conductance
Lecture 4
  4.4  Hodgkin-Huxley model, Parallel conductance model, Potassium conductance, Model for potassium conductance
  4.4.4 Sodium conductance, Model for sodium conductance, A model for channel gating
  4.4.5 Hodgin-Huxley equations, Sodium and potassium conductances, Propagating nerve impulse
  4.5  Patch clamp method, Current through a single ion channel, Modern understanding of the ionic channels
  5  Synapses, receptor cells and brain, Excitatory and inhibitory synapses, Spatial and temporal summation, Electric model of the synapse
Lecture 5
  4.4 – 4.5 Model for potassium and sodium conductances, Nobel Prize 1991, Patch clamp method
  5  Synapses, receptor cells and brain, Reflex arch, Division of sensory and motoric functions, Cranial nerves
  6  The heart, Anatomy and physiology of the heart, Cross-section video, Striated muscle, Syncytium
  6.1  Cardiac cycle, Generation of bioelectric signal, Conduction system, Intrinsic frequency, Electrophysiology of the heart
  6.2.2 – 6.3 Total excitation of the isolated human heart, Genesis of the electrocardiogram
Lecture 6
Part II Bioelectric Sources and Conductors and Their Modeling
  7   Volume source and volume conductor
  7.2  Bioelectric source and its electric field
  7.2.2 Volume source in a homogeneous volume conductor
  7.3  The concept of modeling
  7.4  The human body as a volume conductor
  7.5  Forward and inverse problems
Lecture 7
  7.1 – 7.3 Volume source, Piecewise homogeneous volume conductor, Green’s theorem, Dipole
Part III Theoretical Methods in Bioelectromagnetism
  11   Solid angle theorem, Double layer, Inhomogeneous double layer, Double layer sources
  11.4  Lead Vector, Ohm’s Law, lead vector concept, Lead voltage between two measurement points
  11.4.3 Einthoven triangle, Burger Model, Variation of the Frank model
  11.5  Lead vector, Image surface, Points inside the image surface, Design of orthonormal lead systems
Lecture 8
  11.2  Solid angle theorem, Double layer source, Lead vector
  11.5  Image surface, Design of orthonormal lead systems
  11.6  Lead field, Sensitivity distribution, Linearity, Superposition
  11.6.3 Reciprocity, Hermann von Helmholtz, Historical approach, Electric lead
  11.6.5 Ideal lead field, Effect of electrode configuration, Synthesizing an ideal lead field
Lecture 9
  11.6  Review of lead field concept, Sensitivity distribution, Reciprocity and electric lead
  11.7  Gabor-Nelson theorem, Summary of the theoretical methods
  12.1 – 12.2 Biomagnetism, Equations, Biomagnetic fields
  12.3  Reciprocity theorem for magnetic fields, Equations for electric and magnetic leads
  12.4 – 12.8 Magnetic dipole moment, Ideal lead field, Synthesization of ideal magnetic lead, Radial and tangential sensitivities
Lecture 10
  12.3  Reciprocity theorem for magnetic fields, Biomagnetic fields repeated
  12.4 – 12.9 Magnetic dipole moment, Special properties of magnetic lead fields
  12.11  Sensitivity distribution of basic magnetic leads, Magnetometers
  12.10  Independence of bioelectric and biomagnetic fields, Helmholtz theorem
Part IV Electric and Magnetic Measurement of the Electric Activity of Neural Tissue
  IV  13 -13.6 Electroencephalograpy, EEG lead systems, Behavior of EEG signal
  14.1, 14.2 Magnetoencephalography, History, Sensitivity distribution, Axial and planar gradiometers
  14.3  Comparison of EEG and MEG half sensitivity, Electrode in the source region
  14.3, 14.4 Effect of skull resistivity, Summary.
Lecture 11
Part V Electric and Magnetic Measurement of the Electric Activity of the Heart
  15.1   12-lead ECG system, Waller, Einthoven
  15.2  ECG Signal
  15.3 – 15.5 Wilson central terminal, Goldberger leads, Precordial leads
  15.6, 15.7 Modifications of the 12-lead system, The information content of the 12 lead system
Lecture 12
  16 – 16.2.3 VCG Lead systems, Uncorrected VCG lead systems
  16.3  Corrected VCG Systems, Frank lead system
Lecture 13
  16.3.1 Frank lead system repeated
  16.3.2 – 16.3.5 Lead systems: McFee-Parungao, SVEC III, Gabor-Nelson
  16.4  Discussion on VCG leads
  17 – 17.4 Other lead systems, Moving dipole, Multiple-dipole model, Multipole, Clinical diagnosis
  17.4  Summary of models used
  18 – 18.3 Distortion factors in ECG, Effect of the inhomogeneities, Brody effect
Lecture 14
  18.3 – 18.5 Brody effect, Direction of ventricular activation, Effect of blood resistivity
  19 – 19.4 The basis of ECG diagnosis, The application areas of ECG diagnosis, Electric axis of the heart, Ventricular arrhythmias
  19.5 – 19.7 Disorders in the activation sequence, Myocardial ischemia and infarction
  20 Magnetocardiography, History, Standard grid
Lecture 15
  20.3 Magnetocardiography, Methods for detecting magnetic heart vector, McFee lead system, XYZ-lead system, ABC-lead system
  20.4 – 20.6 Sensitrivity distribution, Generation of MCG signal
  20.7 Clinical applications: Fetal MCG, DC-MCG
  20.7 General solution for the clinical application, Theoretical aspects, Helmholz’s theorem
  20.7. II The electromagnetocardiography method (EMCG), Clinical study, Results
Lecture 16
Part VI Electric and Magnetic Stimulation of Neural Tissue
  21 History, Applications, Taser
  22, VII, 23 Magnetic stimulation, History, Principle of magnetic stimulation, Distribution of stimulation current
Part VII Electric and Magnetic Stimulation of the Heart
        23 Pacemakers
  24 Cardiac defibrillation, Mechanism, Defibrillator devices
Part VIII Measurement of the Intrinsic Electric Properties of Biological Tissues
  25 – 25.3 Impedance cardiography, Signals, Origin of the impedance signal
Lecture 17
  25.3, 25.4 Impedance cardiography, Signals, Origin of the signal
  25.4.5 – 25.6 Accuracy of the impedance cardiography, Other applications of impedance pletysmography
  26 Impedance tomography, Measurement methods, Image reconstruction
  27   Electrodermal response, Lie detector
Part IX Other Bioelectromagnetic Phenomena
        28 The Electric Signals Originating in the Eye, EOG, Electroretinogram
Lecture 18
  Summary I Objectives, Discipline bioelectromagnetism
  Summary II Subthreshold membrane phenomena, Nerst equation, Origin of the resting voltage
  Summary III Active behavior of the membrane, Voltage clamp, Results
  Summary IV Bioelectric sources and conductors, Models
Lecture 19
  Summary V Theoretical methods in bioelectromagnetism, Solid angle theorem, Image surface, Linearity, Superposition, Electric lead
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