Protein Synthesis Involves Transcription & Translation
- The 2 steps of protein synthesis:
||In the nucleus
|Gene is activated.
A copy of the code is made from RNA (m-RNA)
m-RNA leaves the nucleus, goes to cytoplasm.
||In the cytoplasm, on the ribosomes
Peptidyl transferase enzyme
|Ribosome decodes the m-RNA and makes the correct protein.
- Keeping the main copy of the genes in the nucleus protects it from damage
- There are many DNA repair mechanisms in the nucleus
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Can Make Millions of Copies of DNA in a Short Time
- The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a rapid way of amplifying (duplicating) specific DNA sequences
- Method was devised by Kary Mullis of Cetus Corporation, Emeryville
- He recieved a $20,000 bonus and later a Nobel Prize
- Later the patent was sold to Hoffman-LaRoche for $300,000,000
- DNA heated to high temperature is not destroyed; separates into single strands, but reforms helix when cooled
- PCR Method:
- DNA to be amplified is put into solution containing:
- Short DNA “primers” which can bind to the 3′ ends of the DNA
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