21. Define subjective brightness and brightness adaptation?
Subjective brightness means intensity as preserved by the human visual system.
Brightness adaptation means the human visual system can operate only from
scotopic to glare limit. It cannot operate over the range simultaneously. It accomplishes
this large variation by changes in its overall intensity.

22. Define weber ratio
The ratio of increment of illumination to background of illumination is called as
weber ratio.(ie) ?i/i
If the ratio (?i/i) is small, then small percentage of change in intensity is needed
(ie) good brightness adaptation.
If the ratio (?i/i) is large , then large percentage of change in intensity is needed
(ie) poor brightness adaptation.

23. What is meant by machband effect?
Machband effect means the intensity of the stripes is constant. Therefore it
preserves the brightness pattern near the boundaries, these bands are called as machband

24. What is simultaneous contrast?
The region reserved brightness not depend on its intensity but also on its
background. All centre square have same intensity. However they appear to the eye to
become darker as the background becomes lighter.

25. What is meant by illumination and reflectance?
Illumination is the amount of source light incident on the scene. It is represented
as i(x, y).   Reflectance is the amount of light reflected by the object in the scene. It is
represented by r(x, y).

26. Define sampling and quantization
Sampling means digitizing the co-ordinate value (x, y).
Quantization means digitizing the amplitude value.

27. Find the number of bits required to store a 256 X 256 image with 32 gray levels?
32 gray levels = 25

= 5 bits
256 * 256 * 5 = 327680 bits.

28. Write the expression to find the number of bits to store a digital image?
The number of bits required to store a digital image is
b=M X N X k
When M=N, this equation becomes
30. What do you meant by Zooming of digital images?
Zooming may be viewed as over sampling. It involves the creation of new pixel
locations and the assignment of gray levels to those new locations.

31. What do you meant by shrinking of digital images?
Shrinking may be viewed as under sampling. To shrink an image by one half, we
delete every row and column. To reduce possible aliasing effect, it is a good idea to blue
an image slightly before shrinking it.
32. Write short notes on neighbors of a pixel.
The pixel p at co-ordinates (x, y) has 4 neighbors (ie) 2 horizontal and 2 vertical
neighbors whose co-ordinates is given by (x+1, y), (x-1,y), (x,y-1), (x, y+1). This is
called as direct neighbors. It is denoted by N4(P)
Four diagonal neighbors of p have co-ordinates  (x+1, y+1), (x+1,y-1), (x-1, y-1),
(x-1, y+1). It is denoted by ND(4).
Eight neighbors of p denoted by N8(P) is a combination of 4 direct neighbors and
4 diagonal neighbors.

33. Explain the types of connectivity.
1. 4 connectivity
2. 8 connectivity
3. M connectivity (mixed connectivity)

34. What is meant by path?
Path from pixel p with co-ordinates (x, y) to pixel q with co-ordinates (s,t) is a
sequence of distinct pixels with co-ordinates.
35. Give the formula for calculating D4 and D8 distance.
D4 distance ( city block distance) is defined by
D4(p, q) = |x-s| + |y-t|
D8 distance(chess board distance) is defined by
D8(p, q) = max(|x-s|, |y-t|).

36. What is geometric transformation?
Transformation is used to alter the co-ordinate description of image.
The basic geometric transformations are
1.  Image translation
2.  Scaling
3.  Image rotation

37. What is image translation and scaling?
Image translation means reposition the image from one co-ordinate location to
another along straight line path.
Scaling is used to alter the size of the object or image (ie) a co-ordinate system is
scaled by a factor.

38. What is the need for transform?
The need for transform is most of the signals or images are time domain signal
(ie) signals can be measured with a function of time. This representation is not always
best. For most image processing applications anyone of the mathematical transformation
are applied to the signal or images to obtain further information from that signal.

39. Define the term Luminance?
Luminance measured in lumens (lm), gives a measure of the amount of energy an
observer perceiver from a light source.
40. What is Image Transform?
An  image can be expanded  in  terms of a discrete set of basis arrays called basis
images. These basis  images can be generated by unitary matrices. Alternatively, a given
NxN  image can be viewed as an N^2×1 vectors. An  image  transform provides a  set of
coordinates or basis vectors for vector space.

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